Tourism Supply - Describing Tourism's Spatial Patterns         
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Smith, S. L. J. 1995. Describing Tourism Regions. In Tourism Analysis: A Handbook.Essex, Longman Group Limited, Second Edition: 204-249

This chapter reviews the basic methods to describe tourism, particularly its spatial distribution of tourism supply. It reviews three methods for describing the spatial distribution of facilities, resources or tourists: mean center, standard distance, and standard deviational ellipse. It also looks at both connectivity and compactness indices which look to describe in more detail the nature of the spatial distribution. It looks at various measures for describing patterns of distribution such as nearest-neighbor analysis, linear nearest-neighbor analysis (a modification for use linear situations such as highways, rivers or coasts) and spatial association index It reviews Defert's Tf which is a simple measure of the importance of tourism within a regional economy and it reviews Lorenz curves which can indicate the dominance of the current economy by one or two industries. It reviews the peaking index which measures temporal use patterns and the directional bias index which measures whether the tendency of travelers to travel in certain direction - from one place to the next or vice versa. Finally the chapter concludes with a discussion of the attractiveness index which attempts to assess the potential for a region to attract visitors.

Lovingood, P. E. J. and L. E. Mitchell. 1989. "A Regional Analysis of South Carolina Tourism." Annals of Tourism Research 16(3):301-317.

This article describes a regional analysis of tourism resources in South Carolina. The intent of the study was to replicate a methodology developed by Smith (1987). Four tourism resource indices were formulated and use to develop six different types of county clusters, which describe the basic structure of tourism resources in the state. The study compares the regional pattern of county clusters with four measures of economic importance of tourism. Such comparison was made to illustrate the significance of tourism in each county, and give a better understanding of tourism characteristics within the state.

Smith, S. L. J. 1987. "Regional Analysis of Tourism Resources." Annals of Tourism Research 14:253-273.

This paper describes a procedure for defining tourism regions on the basis of county-level resource patterns. Four basic structures are identified using principal component analysis: "urban tourism", "outdoor recreation", "cottaging/boating" and "urban fringe tourism". The four structures were then grouped into six different type of counties. The spatial patterns of these county types reveal a complexity that is masked by the existing, simplified tourism regions defined by the Province of Ontario. Urban tourism resources appear to be the most significant determinant of total county tourism receipts, while cottaging/boating resources are the most important determinant of the relative local magnitude of tourism as an industry.

Keogh, B. 1984. "The Measurement of Spatial Variations in Tourist Activity." Annals of Tourism Research 11:267-282.

The paper looks at the problem of using physical accommodation capacity figures to identify spatial variations in the level of tourist activity and considers the implications for the interpretation of Defert's tourist function (TF) index. Employing accommodation capacity figures to infer relative levels of tourist activity provides a good approximation when most of the accommodation is in the form of hotels and motels. In such cases Defert's TF value represents a most useful too for planners and decision makers to determine the relative importance of tourism to a particular region or town. However, where there are large spatial differences in the types of commercial available, inferring tourist presence from physical capacity figures may lead to errors on account of different use patterns

Cooper, C. P. 1981. "Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Tourist Behaviour." Regional Studies 15(5):359-371.

This paper looks at the spatial and temporal patterns of tourist behavior on the Island of Jersey. It focuses primarily on the tourist oriented factors such as time, tourist psyche, socio-economic characteristics of the tourist and the tourists cognitive map of the area. However, the paper also includes a discussion of the influence of the spatial structure and distribution of the tourist facilities. As the tourist uses an exploration strategy to explore the island the hierarchy of tourist sites, with larger sites that have more facilities more likely to receive visits by tourists earlier in their stay. Sites lower on the hierarchy receive more visits by tourists later in there stay. The hypothesis is that tourists know already that they can return to the sure thing, but are more willing to test out something unknown that has higher risk of not meeting the tourists expectation. Complementary sites, such as a museum to the predominant beach sites, do not fall nicely on this hierarchy and receive visits earlier in the week despite their low rank.

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