Non-Market Goods - Willingness to Pay
Methodology  -  Lake State Examples - Other Examples         
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Dwyer, J. F., J. R. Kelly and M. D. Bowes. 1977. Improved Procedures for Valuation of the Contribution of Recreation to National Economic Development. Research Report 128. Urbana, IL: Water Resources Center, University of Illinois.

This report written in the context of national economic development, provides a lengthy description of two techniques commonly used to determine the value of recreation resources by calculating consumer willingness to pay: a straightforward survey method and the travel cost method. This report advocates strongly for the use of the travel cost method.

Lake States Examples:

Connelly, N. A. and T. L. Brown. 1991. "Net Economic Value of the Freshwater Recreational Fisheries of New York." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 120:770-775.

This paper uses the results of an extensive survey conducted in 1988 to estimate the net economic value of the state of New York's recreational fishery. The net economic value estimated through willingness to pay exceeded $284 million with $69 million associated with the portion of the Great Lakes assigned to New York. Over time there has been a shift in trips for warmwater species to trips for coldwater or both warm and coldwater species. This is attributed to salmonid enhancement programs. Some factors such as apparent declining sportfish biomass and an aging population suggest that the real net value of the Great Lakes fishing may have reached a peak unless the quality of the fishing experience can be improved.

Dawson, C. 1985. The Great Lakes Charterboat Fishing Industry. Mexico, NY: New York Sea Grant Extension Program, Cooperative Extension Offices.

This publication contains eleven studies of which four are devoted to analyzing the economic impact of the charter boat fishing industry. Three studies look at marketing research and applications and four studies look at business and financial management practices. This study is included in this bibliography because one study in particular, "The Economic Contribution of Ohio's Lake Erie Charterboat Industry," used willingness-to-pay estimates, the only study in this collection to use this method.

Samples, K. C. and R. C. Bishop. 1981. The Lake Michigan Angler: A Wisconsin Profile. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute, Department of Agricultural Economics, Center for Resource Policy Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

This report builds a profile of the Wisconsin Lake Michigan angler. Included in the report is a section on the economic impacts of the angler. In 1978, Lake Michigan anglers in Wisconsin spent a total of $16.4 million on their angling pursuit. Of that, $9.8 million was spent in Wisconsin coastal counties and $1.8 million in other Wisconsin counties. A cost-benefit analysis of government expenditures to angler consumer surplus, calculated by willingness to pay, is also calculated. The study conludes that there were $2.5 million in government expenditures on Lake Michigan angling in 1978, while anglers derived a consumer surplus of $7.2 million. This is a return on government investment of $2.8 to every one dollar invested.

Other Examples:

Eubanks, T. L. J., R. B. Ditton and J. R. Stoll. 1998. Platte River Nature Recreation Study. Austin, TX: Texas. Web Link.

This study uses willingness to pay to calculate the value of bird watching only the Platte River in Nebraska. A total of 1,259 surveys were collected and a random telephone check of non-respondents revealed no response-basis. Respondents indicated a willingness to pay an additional $192.75 annually before they would have cancelled their trips to and within the Middle Platte. The consumer surplus for bird watching ranged between $2.8 million and $4.4 million and the total value of wildlife watching along the Platte River ranged between $27.9 million and $57.5 million.

Bockstael, N. E., I. E. J. Strand, K. E. McConnel and F. Arsanjani. 1990. "Sample Selection Bias in the Estimation of Recreation Demand Functions: An Application to Sportfishing." Land Economics 66(1):40-49.

This paper explores three methods for correcting sample selection bias in a sportfishing demand problem. Each method estimates a demand for sportfishing trips when the sample includes non-participants. Of the three models used - Heckman, Tobit and Cragg - the Cragg model is found to be most appropriate for calculating welfare benefits.

Michalson, E. L. 1973. Recreational and Sociological Characteristics of Hunters and an Estimate of the Demand for Hunting in the Sawtooth Area of Idaho. Scenic Rivers Study Report No. 7. Moscow, ID: Water Resources Research Institute, University of Idaho.

This study surveyed hunters in the Sawtooth Area of Idaho. A linear regression demand model was constructed based on the variables of: miles traveled, cost per visitor day, education level, annual income and number of trips made by hunters in 1971. The model was used to calculate a demand curve and then estimate willingness to pay and total net value of the hunting resource in the Sawtooth Area.

Stevens, T. H. and R. J. Kalter. 1970. Technological Externalities, Outdoor Recreation, and the Regional Economic Impact of Cayuga Lake. A. E. Res. 317. Ithaca, NY: Department of Agricultural Economics, Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State College of Agriculture.

This study quantified the economic impact of Cayuga Lake in New York State on the regional economy. A demand allocation model was developed based on nationwide survey of preferences for recreation use. Both willingness-to-pay and estimated direct and indirect expenditures were then calculated based the demand allocation model and results from other studies. The final results provided an estimate of the total economic impact of recreation on Cayuga Lake and provided a baseline for estimating how a proposed thermal plant might affect the regional economic impact of recreationists.

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