Economic Impact Analysis - Social Accounting Matrix 
Methodology  -  Lake State Examples - Other Examples         
Back to Table of Contents                                                                                                   


Daniels, M. J. 2004. "Estimating Income Effects of a Sport Tourism Event." Annals of Tourism Research 31(1):180-199.

This paper compared the use of the IMPLAN Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) to three occupation-based models. The study results suggest that using an IMPLAN SAM to estimate income effects for different households for a sport tourism event may be inappropriate as it is biased to higher income brackets. Instead a modified model that used averaged full-time equivalent wages shows more promise in estimating the true income effects. This particular model demonstrated that for sport tourism, occupations with full-time equivalent salaries that range between $15,000 to $40,000 are most likely to impacted. This study is likely a starting point for using occupational data as an alternative means of demonstrating the income effects of events.

Wagner, J. E. 1997. "Estimating the economic impacts of tourism." Annals of Tourism Research 24(3):592-608.

This paper presents one of the first studies using a social accounting matrix (SAM) to analyze the economic impact of tourism. A SAM has a number of advantage over a input-output model: 1) the structure of the economy is described in terms of links between production, income distribution, and demand within a region's economy; 2) SAM provides a concise framework for synthesizing and displaying data on a region's economy that may have been gathered in difference formats; 3) it allows for the calculation of regional economic multipliers. In this case study, tourism in the Brazilian municipality of Guaraquecaba is found to rely heavily on imported inputs, commodities and capital. Therefore, tourism will generate only a small economic impact on the region and there is little incentive to stop current economic activities that are probably counter to ecosystem-based tourism.

Marcouiller, D. W., D. F. Schreiner and D. K. Lewis. 1993. "Constructing a Social Accounting Matrix to Address Distributive Economics Impacts of Forest Management." Regional Science Perspectives 23(2):60-90.

This paper documents the use of a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) to analyze the distributional impacts brought on by a changes in natural resource use patterns. In particular the shift to more intensive modes of forest production are analyzed for McCurtain County in southeastern Oklahoma. A hybrid IMPLAN model is developed to construct a SAM with the basic operative unit of the household. In this particular study, medium and high income households are most impacted by timber production while low income households by wood processing. This study provides a detailed account of how to construct a SAM.

Lake States Examples:

Leatherman, J. C. and D. W. Marcouiller. 1996. "Income Distribution Characteristics of Rural Economic Sectors: Implications for Local Development Policy." Growth and Change 27(4):434-459.

Recent trends suggest increasing reliance on private markets to provide for local economic well-being. This paper demonstrates the study of regional household income distribution patterns associated with productive activities important to many rural areas. A social accounting matrix analysis was used to examine agricultural production, agricultural processing, forestry production, forest products processing, and tourism in a small rural region in Southwestern Wisconsin to illustrate the variable distributional characteristics of private market structures and related local economic development policy. The ability of local policy to influence distributional patterns is implied to the extent that local action can facilitate variable growth rates of targeted economic sectors.

Leatherman, J. C. and D. W. Marcouiller. 1996. "Persistent Poverty and Natural Resource Dependence: Rural Development Policy Analysis That Incorporates Income Distribution." Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy 26(2):73-93.

This paper discussed prospects for rural economic development and the use of social accounting matrix analysis to identify the distributional characteristics of local markets and development programs in natural resource-dependent regions. A SAM was used to examine the distributional characteristics associated with local economic development policies targeting agricultural production, agricultural processing, forestry production, forestry processing, and tourism for a small rural region in Wisconsin. The analysis also investigated the distributional impacts associated with simultaneous and variable change between economic sectors, and the impediments to development that dependence on a disproportionately large economic sector presents. The results suggested that the distributional impacts vary by sector. SAM analysis was a means whereby local development policies can incorporate information important to addressing questions of lagging rural income growth.

Marcouiller, D. W. and J. C. Stier. 1996. Forest Management Alternatives and Income Distribution in the Lake States. Staff Paper Series # 48. Madison, WI: Department of Forestry, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

This staff paper lays the conceptual framework for assessing income distribution and public goods production resulting from alternative forest management regimes, ecosystem-based management vs intensive production, in 101 counties of Northern Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. The study region is delineated by forest type and represents the forested region of the Lake States. A social accounting matrix with extensions to computable general equilibrium analysis is presented as an approach which allows estimation of income distribution and general equilibrium impacts.

Other Examples:

Back to Table of Contents