Community Wide Impacts 
Lake State Examples - Other Examples         
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Lake States Examples:

Marcouiller, D. W., E. Goodman, S. Fox and D. Scheler. 2004. Travel and Tourism Employment in Wisconsin: Moving Beyond Aggregate Estimates and Conventional Wisdom. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Extension, Department of Urban & Regional Planning University of Wisconsin-Madison.

This study looks at the employment and wages characteristics of the travel and tourism industry in the State of Wisconsin in 2001-02. Focus groups are also used to contextualize the results of the quantitative analysis and provide input on such aspects as the business climate, seasonality, labor markets and the impact of public policy. Statewide the travel and tourism industry generated almost 320,000 total jobs or 12% of all wage and salary jobs. The average annual wage and salary income generated by travel and tourism industry jobs was almost $13,000 compared to $27,000 for "all industries". Roughly three-quarters of the wages and salary are generated in 25 urban and suburban communities, while as a percentage of all economic activity, travel and tourism make up a substantially larger portion (25-30%) of income and jobs for rural Wisconsin. Tourism firm owners and operators were optimistic about the quality of career ladder opportunities in the industry and emphasizes the quality-of-life associated with owning a small business and living in high amenity areas.

Sheil, R. G., D. J. Knapp and T. A. Berry. 2004. Room Taxes and Tourism Development. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Taxpayers Alliance.

This report by the Wisconsin Taxpayers Alliance documents the results of survey of room taxes charged by cities, villages and towns throughout Wisconsin. Room taxes have been rising slowly towards the legal ceiling of 8.0%. Room taxes are used to finance tourism promotion, business and economic development, general revenues, infrastructure and increasingly large scale convention centre projects. The study also presents data and trends of the economic impact of tourism in 26 major markets and northern counties. The study does not analysis the affect of room taxes on Wisconsin tourism demand.

Stynes, D. 1999. Economic Impacts of Tourism in the Eastern Upper Peninsula. East Lansing, MI: Department of Park, Recreation & Tourism Resources, Michigan State University. Web Link.

This study looks to provide a comprehensive estimate the economic impact of tourism activity for the Eastern Upper Peninsula in Michigan. Significantly the study includes the impact of trips to seasonal homes. The total economic impact is estimated using a custom model and secondary data from the IMPLAN system. With multiplier effects accounted for tourism spending generated $162 million in income and supported over 7,500 jobs in the region in 1995. This was a significant increase over 1995, due in large part to growth in casinos in Chippewa and Mackinac counties. Tourism spending accounts for 18% of all income in the region and over a fourth of all jobs. About one fifth of all tourist spending is by seasonal home owners.

Wilson, T., D. W. Marcouiller and T. Stuphin. 1997. Trends in the East-Central Wisconsin Tourism Industry: An Analysis of Activity in Four Tourism-Related Sectors. Staff Paper 96.5. Madison, WI: The Center for Community Economic Development, Univeristy of Wisconsin-Extension.

This research provides a summary of a data set constructed using County Business Patterns. The data suggest that tourism in east-central Wisconsin has been growing steadily over the course of the past 30 years. These trends mimic growth in tourism throughout the upper Midwest. The focus of this report is Waupaca County. It has experienced strong growth trends since 1965 in all tourism categories analyzed, but is lagging behind adjacent counties. The size of firms operating in these tourism-related sectors appear to be increasing in terms of employment per firm.

Kroenke, M., N. R. Sumathi, D. W. Marcouiller, W. G. Wengert and J. Martin. 1996. Commercial Recreation Processing: The Florence County Economy. CCED Extension Report 96.2. Madison, WI: The Center for Community Economic Development, Univeristy of Wisconsin-Extension.

Three separate fact sheets were prepared concerning the Florence County Economy. This fact sheet is the second in the series and looks at tourism and its impact on the local economy. The tourism sector of the economy is discussed in order to understand how it is defined, and how data is collected and measured. The sales of tourism sensitive businesses are analyzed even though this measure overestimates the impact of tourism since it combines both tourism sales and local sales. This fact sheet shows the impact of an increase in tourism spending on the local economy.

Leatherman, J. C. and D. W. Marcouiller. 1996. "Income Distribution Characteristics of Rural Economic Sectors: Implications for Local Development Policy." Growth and Change 27(4):434-459.

Recent trends suggest increasing reliance on private markets to provide for local economic well-being. This paper demonstrates the study of regional household income distribution patterns associated with productive activities important to many rural areas. A social accounting matrix analysis was used to examine agricultural production, agricultural processing, forestry production, forest products processing, and tourism in a small rural region in Southwestern Wisconsin to illustrate the variable distributional characteristics of private market structures and related local economic development policy. The ability of local policy to influence distributional patterns is implied to the extent that local action can facilitate variable growth rates of targeted economic sectors.

Leatherman, J. C. and D. W. Marcouiller. 1996. "Persistent Poverty and Natural Resource Dependence: Rural Development Policy Analysis That Incorporates Income Distribution." Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy 26(2):73-93.

This paper discussed prospects for rural economic development and the use of social accounting matrix analysis to identify the distributional characteristics of local markets and development programs in natural resource-dependent regions. A SAM was used to examine the distributional characteristics associated with local economic development policies targeting agricultural production, agricultural processing, forestry production, forestry processing, and tourism for a small rural region in Wisconsin. The analysis also investigated the distributional impacts associated with simultaneous and variable change between economic sectors, and the impediments to development that dependence on a disproportionately large economic sector presents. The results suggested that the distributional impacts vary by sector. SAM analysis was a means whereby local development policies can incorporate information important to addressing questions of lagging rural income growth.

Leatherman, J. C. and D. W. Marcouiller. 1996. "Estimating Tourism's Share of Local Income From Secondary Data Sources." Review of Regional Studies 26(3):317-340. (UW Extension Report 97.4, May 1997)

This paper presents an alternative method for generating county-level estimates of employee compensation attributable to tourism based on secondary data sources. The procedure used principal components and cluster analyses to establish regions matched by tourism structure. The minimum requirements technique was then used to estimate the share of employee compensation attributable to nonlocal demand. The procedure was applied to Wisconsin counties to estimate tourism shares attributable to travelers and recreational homeowners. The principal components analysis showed Wisconsin tourism is driven by variable combinations of three components: urban tourism, outdoor-based activities, and natural parks/specialty tourism. Minimum requirements generated county-level estimates of non-local demand for disaggregated tourism-sensitive business.

Marcouiller, D. W. 1996. The Seasonality of Labor Use in Rural Tourism Regions. June 1-3, 1995. St. Louis: Paper presented at the 1995 Mid-continent Regional Science Association.

This study used monthly 1993 ES-202 data on employment and a standard deviation approach to develop an index of annual seasonality in labor use among four Wisconsin regions. In addition to statewide data, these regions included three counties in Northern Wisconsin, Door County and the Wisconsin Dells. Labor use of characteristic tourism types are compared and contrasted with respect to 1 digit SIC categories.

Leatherman, J. C. 1995. At Work in The Kickapoo Valley: Tourism. Madison, WI: The Center for Community Economic Development, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This fact sheet looks at the impact of tourism on the economy of the region. Using an input-output model, the impact of canoeists on the economy was looked at specifically. From a survey that was conducted in 1993, canoeists spent an estimated $655,607 in the Valley. The total direct and indirect impact of this expenditure accounts for about $700,000 in sales, about $240,000 in wages and about $463,000 in all types of income. In addition, about 18 jobs are created. This analysis shows the significance of one recreational activity to the Valley's economy and why tourism as a development strategy can yield beneficial results.

Marcouiller, D. W. and J. Alpi. 1995. Using County Sales Tax to Identify Tourism Trends: Selected Wisconsin Counties. Madison, WI: Tourism Research and Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

The authors of this document outline trends in tourism-sensitive business sectors at the county level using sales tax information provided by the State of Wisconsin. This is done only for the 43 Wisconsin counties in which the tax was in effect during 1993. A ranked list of counties based upon net sales tax per capita illustrates that Door County and Oneida County had the highest net sales tax per capita at $66.78 and $64.43 respectively. Between 1991 and 1993, 15 new counties have added a county sales tax. Included in this recent set of additions, Dane County had a $59.71 net sales tax per capita during 1993, placing it third in the state using this measure. Generally higher net sales tax per capita are found among counties where tourism is relatively more important. Local economies benefit from the influx of money from nonresidents into these tourism-sensitive areas.

Anderson, C. and D. Otto. 1994. The Economic Impact of Rural Highway Bypasses: Iowa and Minnesota Case Studies. Ames, IA: Iowa State University.

Bypasses are viewed as a cost-effective method of improving traffic flow by routing traffic around central business districts of communities. However, retailers and other businesses in central business district view bypasses as having adverse impacts on them. This study examined the effect of bypasses on rural communities. The paper looked at 11 communities in Iowa and 10 communities in Minnesota. The paper used several methods to examine potential impacts. Pull factors of overall retail sales were compared in communities with and without bypasses. Total sales were analyzed in various classes of retail sales to understand the impact on different types of businesses. A survey was conducted of businesses to assess their attitude towards bypasses. This information was analyzed using a Probit model. The findings suggested that bypasses do not affect retail sales.

Marcouiller, D. W. 1994. Tourism-Related Labor Returns in Northern Wisconsin. Staff Paper 94.1. Madison, WI: Tourism Research and Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

Travelers and recreational homeowners are important sources of demand for firms operating in heavily tourism-oriented regions. Returns to labor resources employed in tourism-related firms provides important detail of the economic development implications of tourism development on rural forested regions. This study analyzes employee compensation in two regions of Northern Wisconsin by industry. The export share of these returns to labor resources is identified using a minimum requirements technique. Results indicate that the export shares exceed fifty percent in many important service, real estate, and construction industries within this region.

Sweeney, N. 1993. European Tourism in Wisconsin: Its Potential Impact on Economic Growth in Wisconsin. Volume 6 No 6. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report.

According to this report, Wisconsin has not benefited from visits of Europeans to the U.S. It is calculated that European tourists spend four to five time more than Canadian visitors. The report also estimates that if Wisconsin attracted 1% of the European-U.S. visitors, the state would benefit in terms of an additional $183 million in tourist expenditures, 2.4% increase in occupancy rates, the creation of 3,700 full-time job equivalents, and an additional $16 million in state tax revenues. The report stressed marketing opportunities for Wisconsin and a marketing strategy for the European market.

Hamilton, S. 1992. Visitor Profile of the Wisconsin Dells Area Attractions 1991. Madison, WI: Tourism Research and Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

Over 5,000 surveys generated a visitor profile, expenditure patterns and marketing information of 1991 visitors to the Wisconsin Dells. The study found that average daily expenditures per person were estimated to be $41.69.

Sumathi, N. R. and R. Orton. 1992. Advertising Conversion Study: An Informational and Economic Analysis of Oneida County Visitors. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Extension.

Because tourism promotion is a common way to promote a destination, organizations need to know whether their dollars spent on promotion are effective. For this report, a mail survey was sent to inquirers of the Oneida County Visitors Bureau. Respondents were asked about the effectiveness of advertising, their information sources about Onieda County, their home county or state, their destination in Oneida County, their party size, average party expenditures, their favorite recreational activities, and their attitudes related to eco-tourism, cultural heritage, and historical attractions. Average party expenditures totaled $638 with Illinois residents outspending Wisconsin residents by about $200. The results indicated that for every advertising dollar, the increase in sales was $2.06 in the form of visitor expenditures in Oneida County.

Anderson, K. 1991. A Survey of Vilas County Vacationers, Summer 1991. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Extension.

A survey of vacationers was carried out from May to September of 1991 to prepare a demographic profile and report on expenditure patterns. A total of $344,200 was spent by visitors for all purposes during this time period.

Gray, J. 1991. 1990 Wisconsin Dells Conversion Study. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study looked at the cost effectiveness of magazine advertising for the Wisconsin Dells area. It looked at expenditures of visitors, a visitor profile, and cost effectiveness of advertising. This study concluded that magazines were the best way to get first time visitors to the Dells.

Hamilton, S., J. Bauer, L. Larson and L. Pagliaro. 1991. 1991 Wisconsin Dells Television Advertising Conversion Study. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This authors of this study sent a survey to people who called the Dells visitors and Convention Bureau in response to television advertising. The survey measured the effectiveness of television advertising in attracting responses and visitors to the Dells area. On average, the return on investment was $29 and represented 3.4 % of estimated gross sales, which is lower than the national average.

Wisconsin Tourism Development. 1990-2003. The Economic Impact of Expenditures by Travelers on Wisconsin - Calendar Year 1990-2003. Madison, WI: Unpublished report compiled by Davidson-Peterson Associates (York, Maine) for the Wisconsin Department of Development/Tourism. http://agency.travelwisconsin.com/Research/research.shtm

This series of reports measured the economic benefits of tourism of travelers to Wisconsin's residents and governments. The authors of the report used a T-MAP-I economic impact model to measure economic benefits. The informational inputs into the method includes an inventory of lodging facilities, a seasonal survey of lodging business activity, an expenditure model, a telephone survey of Wisconsin residents, and an expenditure forecasting model. These reports provide detailed information about tourist expenditures and their impacts both for the state and for each county. The latest report includes seasonal data.

Gray, J. and S. Hamilton. 1990. Converting Advertising Into Dollars. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This report assessed how advertising dollars were used and attempted to measure the return on the advertising investment based on visitor interviews. The report provides a visitor profile as well. The study found that the return on investment amounted to $40.83. Newspaper ads were the most cost-effective with a return of $140.28 for every dollar invested.

Gray, J., F. Li and S. Hamilton. 1990. Eau Claire Summer Visitor Survey. Madison, Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

Visitors to Eau Claire and residents of Eau Claire were interviewed for this report which measured how much visitors spent in Eau Claire and gave a visitor profile. On average, visitors spend $28.05 per day. If they stay overnight, they spent upwards of $67.13 per day.

Gray, J., F. Li and S. Hamilton. 1990. Manitowoc-Two Rivers Visitor and Lodging Study Books 1 and 2. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

Part I of this report used a sampling of lodging registration cards to come up with a visitor profile. Part II focused on interviews of visitors, owners and operators in this area to gain an understanding of how visitors spent their time, who they are, and how and where they spent money. On average, visitors spent $184.34 per day. Boating parties spent the highest amount, $1,211.54 per day while day trippers spent the least, $156.24 per day.

Gray, J., M. Mistele and S. Hamilton. 1989. A Picturesque Tour of Summer Visitors to Wisconsin's Fox Cities. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This report produced a visitor profile and expenditure patterns from interviews conducted in the Fox Cities. The study estimated that 190,722 non-residents visited the Fox Cities spending about $8.8 million. On average, $120.77 was spent per visitor party.

Gray, J., M. Mistele and S. Hamilton. 1988. Dells Area Inquiry Analysis. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study surveyed individuals who had requested visitor information from the Wisconsin Dells Visitor Bureau. The surveys show how many of those people actually visited the Dells and analyzed the cost of advertising for the dollars spent in the Dells by visitors. The survey showed a $75 return for every $1 of advertising spent.

Bay-Lake Regional Planning Commission. 1987. The Economic Impact of the Port of Green Bay on the Economy of Brown County, Wisconsin -- A Technical Report to the Brown County Board of Harbor Commissioners. Staff Report Series Green Bay, WI: Bay-Lake Regional Planning Commission.

This technical study was conducted to get a better understanding of the role the Port played in the Brown County economy in 1986. To generate economic impacts, the Port Economic Impact Kit (PORTKIT) was used. This analytic tool was developed to assist small- and medium- sized ports to determine their economic impact on the surrounding area. An input-output model was contained in this computer driven program that allowed the user to input data and estimate indirect and induced impacts. According to this report, total sales amounted to almost $49 million, total income amounted to about $18 million, and total jobs amounted to 761. State and local taxes collected in the county and generated from Port activities were calculated to be approximately $2.5 million.

Gray, J., S. Hamilton and J. Higgins. 1987. Dells Area Trip Expenditures Diaries. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

A sample of parties visiting the Wisconsin Dells area were asked to fill out an trip expenditure diary while in the Dells area. The information provided was used to prepare a visitor profile and expenditure pattern. This study estimated that 675,000 tourists visited the Dells during July and August and spent $62.5 million in the Dells area.

Gray, J., S. Hamilton and M. Mistele. 1987. Wisconsin's Northwoods Area Study. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

In this five county study in two parts, interviews were conducted with guest parties to provide a visitor profile and expenditure pattern of daily visitors and overnight guests. The study found that $470 was spent by the average visitor party during their stay and a total of $152.7 million was spent in the area.

Gray, J., S. Hamilton and J. Higgins. 1986. Manitowoc-Two Rivers Guest and Lodging Surveys. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

Non-resident guest parties were interviewed over a four week period in the summer of 1986 to prepare a visitor profile and expenditure patterns. Tourism gross sales was estimated at $10.9 million over a two-month period in 1986. Average daily expenditures of visitors was $24,84 with overnight guests spending on average, per person, $47.93.

Gray, J., J. Higgins and S. Hamilton. 1986. Door County Guest Surveys: Interviews. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study of Door County visitors produced a visitor profile and expenditure patterns for the summer of 1986. Interviews of over 2,400 non-resident guest parties were interviewed. The study found that tourism gross sales were estimated at $66.9 million for July and August of 1986. Door County visitors spent about $24 per day.

Gray, J., J. Higgins and S. Hamilton. 1986. Green Bay Guest Surveys. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

Non-resident guest parties were interviewed over a six-week period in 1986 to prepare a visitor profile and expenditure patterns. Over this period, it is estimated that $12.2 million in tourism gross sales occurred. Green Bay visitors spent on average $9.24 per day

Gray, J., J. Higgins and S. Hamilton. 1986. Northwestern Wisconsin: Study of Overnight Guests. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

In the ten county area or Northwest Wisconsin, a sampling of registration cards from twenty-five motels, hotels resorts and private campgrounds were collected to prepare a visitor profile. Visitors average daily expenditure was $11.13. Tourism gross sales were not estimated in this study

Rose, C. and R. Cooper. 1986. The Economic Impacts of Recreation-Tourism. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study estimated the impact of visitors on the St. Croix county economy. By estimating total expenditures of visitors on hotels/motels, private and public campgrounds and second homes, the benefits to the private sector were presented. In addition, public sector benefits were estimated primarily from property tax receipts. Some public sector costs were estimated as well. The study estimated that direct and indirect benefits totaled about $24 million and over 250 full time equivalent jobs. Although some public sector costs are generated (about $80,000), the benefits are estimated to outweigh these costs by over $350,000.

Chesler, A. and D. Schink. 1985. An Economic Impact Study of Recreation and Tourism on the Portage County Economy. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This report analyzed the recreation/tourism industry in Portage County. The study found that over $42 million per year are generated by visitors and that almost 450 jobs are directly and indirectly supported by these dollars. In addition, there were sizable public sector benefits, particularly from the tax revenue provided by owners of second homes.

Gray, J., S. Hamilton, K. Mueller and D. Monson. 1985. Dells Area Inquiry Analysis. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study surveyed individuals who had requested visitor information from the Wisconsin Dells Visitor Bureau. The surveys showed how many of those people actually visited the Dells and analyzed the cost of advertising for the dollars spent in the Dells by visitors. The study found that the visitors who responded to advertising spent about $32.6 million. The return on investment was estimated at $76.73.

Rovelstad, J. M. and M. E. Rovelstad. 1985. The Economic Impact of Tourism in Southeastern Wisconsin. Kenosha, WI: Wisconsin Department of Development, Division of Tourism and Division of Policy Development.

Nineteen counties in Southeastern Wisconsin were used as the basis for this pilot study on the impact of travel and tourism on the Wisconsin economy in 1982 and 1983. A mail survey was sent to all lodging facilities and campgrounds within the study region. A computer package was used to calculate the impacts from expenditure information provided in the surveys. The findings indicated that total sales amounted to $1.29 billion in 1982 and $1.31 billion in 1983. Tax revenues were calculated to total $74 million in 1982 and $76 million in 1983. These figures were projected for a state-wide impact as well.

Lichty, R. W. and D. N. Steinnes. 1982. "Measuring the Impact of Tourism on a Small Community." Growth and Change 13(2):36-39.

This paper presents the results of a input-output analysis of the tourism industry in Ely, Minnesota. Three surveys - one of all 300 businesses in town, one of businesses to estimate expenditures by residents and non-residents, and one of customers of Ely businesses - were used to build an input-output model of the tourism industry. A total economic income impact from tourism of $3.8 million was calculated in this study.

Gray, J. and A. Somersan. 1982. Gross Sales of Wisconsin's Hospitality-Recreation-Tourism Industry-1981. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study estimated the gross sales generated by the Hospitality-Recreation-Tourism (HRT) industry in 1981. The HRT industry was split into two groups for this study: pure HRT businesses and recreation-sensitive businesses. This industry generated over $6 billion in sales and contributed over $167 million in state sales taxes.

Somersan, A. and W. Pinkovitz. 1980. Milwaukee Visitor Economic Impact. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

Although Milwaukee is known more for its manufacturing base than its pull for visitors, visitors to the city have been numerous. This study estimated the number of visitor days and then estimated total direct expenditures. Most of the data was from secondary sources and earlier studies of Milwaukee. The report found that total direct expenditures amounted to about $170 million. In addition, about 9,000 full or part-time jobs were generated. When the indirect impacts were calculated, it added $367 million of expenditures and an additional 19,700 jobs.

Somersan, A. 1979. Visitor Economic Impacts In Brown County. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This report looked at the economic impact of visitors and convention delegates on Brown County. Direct and indirect expenditures were calculated along with the creation of new employment due to visitor impacts. In addition, public costs and benefits were estimated. The total expenditure impact was calculated at close to $93 million and total employment impact was estimated at about 4,500 new full and part-time jobs. The public sector saw a net fiscal benefit of about $140,000.

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