Recreational Housing
Lake State Examples - Other Examples         
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Lake States Examples:

Stynes, D. 1999. Economic Impacts of Tourism in the Eastern Upper Peninsula. East Lansing, MI: Department of Park, Recreation & Tourism Resources, Michigan State University. Web Link.

This study looks to provide a comprehensive estimate the economic impact of tourism activity for the Eastern Upper Peninsula in Michigan. Significantly the study includes the impact of trips to seasonal homes. The total economic impact is estimated using a custom model and secondary data from the IMPLAN system. With multiplier effects accounted for tourism spending generated $162 million in income and supported over 7,500 jobs in the region in 1995. This was a significant increase over 1995, due in large part to growth in casinos in Chippewa and Mackinac counties. Tourism spending accounts for 18% of all income in the region and over a fourth of all jobs. About one fifth of all tourist spending is by seasonal home owners.

Deller, S. C., D. W. Marcouiller and G. P. Green. 1997. "Recreational Housing and Local Government Finance." Annals of Tourism Research 24(3):687-705.

The study uses "holistic" model of fiscal impact to determine the economic impact of recreation housing on local governments fiscal balance in Wisconsin counties. The "holistic" model uses a traditional fiscal modeling approach that is rooted in the public finance literature and estimates a set of reduced form equations detailing local government revenues and expenditures. In general it was found that recreational housing development just pays for itself in terms of the ability of local governments to generate revenues - such as property taxes, fines and penalties, charges and fees and state aids - when compared to the demand places on services, as measured by expenditures - such as general government expenditures, police and fire protection, road maintenance, waste disposal, health and human services, cultural and education services, parks and recreation, and conservation and development.

Leatherman, J. C. and D. W. Marcouiller. 1996. "Estimating Tourism's Share of Local Income From Secondary Data Sources." Review of Regional Studies 26(3):317-340. (UW Extension Report 97.4, May 1997)

This paper presents an alternative method for generating county-level estimates of employee compensation attributable to tourism based on secondary data sources. The procedure used principal components and cluster analyses to establish regions matched by tourism structure. The minimum requirements technique was then used to estimate the share of employee compensation attributable to nonlocal demand. The procedure was applied to Wisconsin counties to estimate tourism shares attributable to travelers and recreational homeowners. The principal components analysis showed Wisconsin tourism is driven by variable combinations of three components: urban tourism, outdoor-based activities, and natural parks/specialty tourism. Minimum requirements generated county-level estimates of non-local demand for disaggregated tourism-sensitive business.

Marcouiller, D. W., S. C. Deller, N. R. Sumathi and D. Erkkila. 1996. Recreational Homes and Regional Development: A Case Study From the Upper Great Lakes States. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study used focus group interviews, mail surveys, and secondary data to develop a better understanding of the implications of second homes in Wisconsin and Minnesota during late 1994. A unique aspect of this research was the combined assessment of both recreational homeowners and residents of rural communities that experience large seasonal populations of recreational homeowners. Whereas primary data sources were specific to Forest County, Wisconsin, generalizations are made to the Lake States of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. The focus is on socioeconomic implications that address development strategies, land use options, and satisfaction/performance of publicly provided goods and services.

Preissing, J., D. W. Marcouiller, G. Green, S. C. Deller and N. R. Sumathi. 1996. Recreational Homeowners and Regional Development: A Comparison of Two Northern Wisconsin Counties. Madison, WI: The Center for Community Economic Development, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This was a companion report to "Recreational homeowners and regional development: A case study of the Upper Great Lake States." Instead of comparing residents and recreational homeowners, this study compared characteristics of recreational homeowners in Burnett County, Wisconsin (Northeastern Wisconsin) with recreational homeowners in Forest County, Wisconsin (Northwest Wisconsin). A similar mail survey was used to identify different information sources, expenditure patterns, and perceptions of regional development. The report concluded that recreational homeowners benefit local businesses with expenditures ranging from $2,400 to $3,400 per year. Because recreational homeowners make up a large percentage of the total number of housing units in rural Northern Wisconsin, including such homeowners in the decision-making process can be important.

Marcouiller, D. W., W. C. Norman, S. C. Deller, N. R. Sumathi and D. Erkkila. 1995. Information and Regional Choice in Recreational Housing. June 1-3, 1995. St. Louis: Paper presented at the 1995 Mid-continent Regional Science Association.

The leisure pursuits of individuals undergo change over time. Transitions exist between broad types of leisure pursuits as change occurs in disposable household income, physical capabilities, lifelong outlooks, family status, and other variations in demographic composition. The authors of this paper set out to identify evidence which indicates the existence of a transition between short-term destination travel for vacations and the purchase and use of recreational housing. Empirical data (collected in late 1994) from a mail-survey and a set of focus group interviews held in Forest County, Wisconsin was analyzed using cluster analysis to define differences between groups of recreational homeowners. Results show that there are three basic groups of recreational homeowners comprising those who gained information through relatives, by day trips/general information, and by longer vacations and by friends.

Powers, J. and R. Cooper. 1976. Waupaca Chain-o-Lakes Second Home Owners: Expenditures, Perceptions, Characteristics, and Economic Impact. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This analysis of second home owners provided important information about the home owners and their expenditure patterns. The study was carried out through the use of a mail survey. The study concluded that second home owners have had a positive impact on the local economy contributing over $1 million annually.

Schink, D. and A. Somersan. 1976. Impacts of Recreation In The Coastal Zone: Large Recreational Home Developments in Wisconsin's Coastal Zone. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Coastal Zone Management, Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study was one of five that looked at the Impacts of Recreation in the Coastal Zone. This study's focus was on large recreational home developments. Six developments were identified and the developers were interviewed to understand the regulatory procedures for large subdivisions. The study presented the demand and supply of these types of developments and a discussion of the regulatory impacts. The appendix presented a discussion of economic, environmental and social impacts related to recreational housing developments.

Barrows, R. L. and W. Nilestuen. 1974. Recreation and Economic Development in the Kickapoo Valley. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This report studies the impact of the LaFarge Dam on creating jobs and increasing local incomes in the Kickapoo Valley. The report specifically looks at the potential for recreational development to have a positive economic impact. The recreational facilities include a state park, a bike trail and the river which this report concludes will benefit from the dam. In addition, second-home construction will impact the local economy through construction activity, additional tax base, and second-home owner expenditures.

Udell, J. 1973. Expenditures and Perceptions of Property Owners At Lakes Sherwood and Camelot. Madison, WI: Bureau of Business Research and Service, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

This study was one of three conducted concerning the economic and social impact of the creation of two lakes in Adams County. A survey of property owners was conducted to measure their expenditures within a 50 mile radius of the lakes. The response represented about 20% of the owners in the area. This study estimated that about $9.24 million was spent on property improvement in 1972 of which about $6.73 million went to local contractors. Annual living expenditures were estimated at about $1.25 million. Taxes and food, tobacco and beverages were the highest living expenditures totaling close to $675,000. Many owners are planning to retire in the area. This study expected an expansion of retail and service industries in the county as more homes were built around the lakes.

Other Examples:

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