Recreation Conflict - Compatibility This paper develops for a framework for assessing the compatibility of
forest-based recreation with timber production. The interface between these
two uses is examined using importance / performance and factor analysis as a
basis for explanatory regression models of forest-based recreational user
perceptions. Results suggest that forest use compatibility is dependent on the
type of recreationist, their previous understanding of forest management
effects, attitudes toward land use regulations, concern for local economic
conditions, and social-demographics characteristics. Whereas recreationists
realize the importance of forest use to local development, there are distinct
differences among forest-based recreationists in their support of timber
management and related activities. Marcouiller, D. W. and T. Mace. 1999.
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Marcouiller, D. W. 2000. "The compatibility of timber production with forest-based recreation: Developing a basis for evaluating user conflicts." Draft Manuscript.
This paper develops for a framework for assessing the compatibility of forest-based recreation with timber production. The interface between these two uses is examined using importance / performance and factor analysis as a basis for explanatory regression models of forest-based recreational user perceptions. Results suggest that forest use compatibility is dependent on the type of recreationist, their previous understanding of forest management effects, attitudes toward land use regulations, concern for local economic conditions, and social-demographics characteristics. Whereas recreationists realize the importance of forest use to local development, there are distinct differences among forest-based recreationists in their support of timber management and related activities.
Marcouiller, D. W. and T. Mace. 1999.Forests and regional development: Economic impacts of woodland use for recreation and timber in Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Extension.
This study's primary objective was to research the economic impact of multiple uses of the Wisconsin's forests. Of particular relevance to issues of recreation conflict, was this study's use of importance-performance measures to investigate the compatibility of alternative forest uses. In general, the results suggest that recreational and timber production uses of the forest were compatible land uses. This was more likely to be true for hunters and motorized recreationists than with the broad category of "quiet" forest recreationists. The authors intent was to identify the relative compatibility of alternative forest uses and they conclude that there are more compatibilities among forest use alternatives than there are incompatibilities. This runs counter to much traditional thought, both among academics and policymakers.
Dennis, D. F. 1998. "Analyzing public inputs to multiple objective decisions on national forests using conjoint analysis." Forest Science 44(3): 421-429.
This study focuses on public perspectives of approach multiple-use regimes for national forests. The emphasis is not only the compatibility or desirability between different recreational uses, but also between different recreational uses and different types of forest management. This study uses a novel approach, employing a conjoint ranking survey to solicit public preferences for various levels of timber harvesting, wildlife habitats, hiking trails, snowmobile use, and off-road vehicle access in the Green Mountain National Forest. Despite high levels of conflict and extreme positions seen during public debates on these issues, the results of this study found more tempered opinions. Respondents preferred moderate levels of timber harvesting and snowmobile access and lower levels of off-road vehicle access. They favored a mixture of mature closed canopy and younger more open forests over either extreme and were somewhat indifferent toward extending the network of hiking trails. These study illustrates one approach for determining peoples' perceptions on the relatively compatibility between different recreation uses.
van Kooten, G. C. 1993. "Management of Public Lands for Multiple Use." In Land Resource Economics and Sustainable Development: Economic Policies and the Common Good, 363-391. Vancouver: UBC Press.
This book provides an introduction to issues of land use and the economic tools that can be used to resolve land-use conflicts. This particular chapter focuses on the issue of multiple use management of public lands. It provides an historical account of public land management in North America and looks at the province of British Columbia as a particular case study. The conflicts between domestic and wildlife grazing and between timber production and grazing is used as an example to illustrate the economic transformation functions of alternative land uses. With land uses considered as outputs produced by the land resource, alternative land uses are (1) competitive (2) complementary (3) supplementary and (4) antagonistic. Given this economic framework the optimal use of public lands can be determined. For example, one study in Arizona analyzed the trade-off between hunting values and domestic grazing. The researchers concluded that the marginal elk is more valuable than the marginal cattle and that the cattle and elk numbers were far from an economically efficient equilibrium. Theoretically, this procedure could be applied to many different problems including recreation conflicts. However, the method is fraught with many challenging including appropriate valuation of resources and development of transformation functions.
Fesenmaier, D. R. and S. R. Lieber. 1988. "Destination diversification as an indicator of activity compatibility: An exploratory analysis." Leisure Sciences 10: 167-178.
The paper explores the compatibility between different recreational activities at in Oklahoma. This exploratory study uses regression analysis to measure the interrelationships between outdoor recreation activities. By looking at the type of outdoor recreation activity and the number of facilities where households choose to engage in those activities, the study was able to measure the relative compatibility between different activities. The study found compatibility amongst many activities and relatively few instances of incompatibility. However, the given the study methodology the relative compatibility was most often related to current configuration of recreation sites - such as tent camping and day hiking which are available together at many locations in Oklahoma - rather than the nature of the recreation activity.
Hay, M. J. and K. E. McConnel. 1984. "Harvesting and nonconsumptive wildlife recreation decisions." Land Economics 60(4): 388--396.
This study addresses the question of whether individuals make joint decisions to hunt and observe wildlife. Using data from national surveys conducted in 1971 and 1975, a recreation participation decision model is constructed. The analysis demonstrated some degree of complementarity between the two uses. The results point toward the important conclusion that natural resource policy decisions will not only have direct effects on the activity of interest, but important indirect effects on activities complementary to the activity of interest. When model equations are specified without considering the possibility of joint participation decisions, they may exclude important determinants, include variables incorrectly, or, in general, be misspecified.
Levine, R. L. and E. E. Langenau Jr. 1979. "Attitudes towards clearcutting and their relationships to the patterning and diversity of forest recreation activities." Forest Science 25(2): 317-327.
This study explores the attitudes towards clearcutting dependent on the types of recreational activity that people engage. The study grouped recreational users both into activity clusters based on the type of recreational activities people were engaged in and into patterns that were related to the diversity of recreational activities that people were engaged in. Of the five activity clusters identified, only the hunting and motor clusters had a significant correlation with clearcutting agreement. Diversity of recreational pursuit did have a significant relationship with clearcutting agreement, with the mean level agreement of being significantly higher for those recreationists who engage in diversity of activities compared to those who engage in only a few activities. From a conflict perspective, this study highlights that compatibility amongst different land uses may be just as or more dependent on factors that increase peoples tolerance or understanding, such as engaging in many different types of recreational activities, as it is on the type of activities involved in the potential conflict.
Harsay, J. G. 1978. "Efficiency, adaptibility, and compatiblity in multiple land use." Environmental Management 2(3): 204-208.
This overview article looks at the relationship between specialization and adaptibility in terms of long-term efficiency. Multiple-use land management should be about finding an optimal combination between specialization and generalization. With specialization comes intensity of use, and the compatibility between land-uses decreases. While the potential for compatible land-uses increases as ecological diversity also increases. These simple, yet important, relationships need to be considered as managers consider compatibility amongst recreation uses and between recreation uses and other land-uses.
Clawson, M. 1974. "Conflict, strategies, and possibilities for consensus in forest land use and management". In Forest Policy for the Future: Conflict, Compromise, Consensus, edited by M. Clawson, 105-191. Washington: Resources for the Future.
This article explores different possibilities for forest management with regard to intensity of harvest and management. As part of the analysis framework, a compatibility matrix is developed that relates different uses of the forest land-based to each other. Different uses, such as "recreation opportunity", "wood production", or "wilderness" are compared for their relative compatibility as land-uses. The framework, and the relatively incompatibility amongst different uses, leads to a consideration of the merits of a strategy that includes intensive forest management on a smaller acreage with other uses dominating in more areas (than was the current practice at the time).
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