Recreation Conflict - Affect and Emotions
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Lee, B., C. Shafer and I. Kang. 2005. "Examining relationships among perceptions of self, episode-specific evaluations, and overall satisfaction with a leisure activity." Leisure Sciences 27(2): 93-109.

This research looks at a common aspect of recreation conflict research, user satisfaction. However, the approach taken and theoretical constructs differ from past research. The purpose of this research was to investigate how satisfaction might relate to interactions that an individual has during leisure experience and to examine the relationships among emotions, episode-specific evaluations, and overall satisfaction. A research model was suggested based on Affect Control Theory, the confirmation/disconfirmation paradigm, Mehrabian and Russell's (1974) approach-avoidance concept, and the sub-domain dependency theory of leisure satisfaction. To hypotheses are proposed: 1) episodes producing positive emotions will be more favorably evaluated than those producing negative emotions; and 2) leisure participants overall satisfaction will be higher if they experience more contentment than conflict in terms of reaction to specific episodes A survey was conducted of 145 trail users on multi-use trail in Houston, Texas. The findings indicated that evaluations of episodes were significantly related to the emotions experienced due to the those episodes, thus confirming hypothesis 1. Furthermore, the study also confirmed hypothesis 2, with people who had over 50% of their episodes that led to contentment having significantly different mean satisfaction than those who had over 50% of their episodes leading to conflict.

Vitterso, J., R. Chipeniuk, M. Skar and O. Vistad. 2004. "Recreational conflict is affective: The case of cross-country skiers and snowmobiles." Leisure Sciences 26(3): 227-243.

The study used a novel field experiment to test the assumption that subjective feelings are important in recreation conflict. During a weekend, cross-country skiers in a popular recreation area were assigned randomly to an experimental group who were exposed to an operating snowmobile, and a control group who were not exposed. In the experimental group, skiers were asked to fill out a self-administered survey shortly after encountering a snowmobile, while skiers in the control group filled out a self-administered survey without having been exposed to a snowmobile. Surveys respondents were given no clue as to the relationship of the snowmobile and survey being conducted. Results showed that relative to the control group, skiers who encountered a snowmobile had the quality of their affective experiences - as measured by feelings of relaxation, peacefulness, joy, harmony, annoyance - significantly reduced. This result points to the subjective nature of recreation conflict. Furthermore, the encounter with the snowmobile effected the participants' beliefs about the extent to which noise from snowmobiles disturbed the quality of ski-touring in general.

Lee, B. and C. S. Shafer. 2002. "The dynamic nature of leisure experience: An application of Affect Control Theory." Journal of Leisure Research 34(3): 290-310.

This study represents a relatively new body of research within the recreation conflict literature, that of the subjective emotional state of the user. Leisure and recreation experiences are generally believed to emerge through a dynamic interaction process. Affect Control Theory provides one basis for understanding emotions experienced during the recreation experience. This study adopts the theory and applies it a survey of 111 respondents on multiple-use trail in an urban greenway. The INTERACT II program is used to predict emotions based on respondents' evaluations of events they encountered along the trail. The paper presents specific examples from the survey of how and why emotions differ both within a respondent's experience and between respondents' experiences. For example, the event "saw a lot of fish" was associated with mostly positive emotions such as "cheerful", "pleased", "peaceful" or "serene." While the event "passed on narrow part of trail" was associated with a wider range of emotions from "cheerful" and "satisfied" to "petrified" and "gloomy." he authors conclude that Affect Control Theory was useful in in examining within and between subject variations and provided reasons that helped to explain why some of these differences might occur. The theory has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the complex and subtle in recreation creates a dynamic experience.

Watson, D., L. A. Clark and A. Tellegen. 1988. "Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54(6): 1063-1070.

This article is an example of the body of psychological literature which has investigated subjective well-being. The impact of the subjective emotional state of the recreational user on perceived conflict is now being investigated by recreation researchers who use this body of literature as their theoretical foundation. Given the results of studies showing a consistent independence between positive and negative dimensions of affect, this research develops and tests two ten-item mood scales. The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period.

Diener, E. and R. A. Emmons. 1985. "The independence of positive and negative affect." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47(5): 1105-1117.

This article is an example of the body of psychological literature which has investigated subjective well-being. The impact of the subjective emotional state of the recreational user on perceived conflict is now being investigated by recreation researchers who use this body of literature as their theoretical foundation. Previous researched had found that happiness is not a unitary construct, rather it is composed of two separate feelings: positive and negative affect. This study reports on the results of five different studies that when taking together suggests a relative degree of independence between the positive and negative affect. However, the independence between negative and positive affect is influenced strongly by time span - independence increasing over time- and how much people feel - more independent during highly emotional times.

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