Tourism Supply - Factors of Production           
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Marcouiller, D. W. and J. Prey. 2004. The Tourism Supply Linkage: Recreational Sites and their Related Natural Amenities. Madison, WI: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

This manuscript focuses on the supply components of recreational resources and their links with tourism incidence in Wisconsin. The supply of recreation and tourism is a complex combination of natural amenities, recreational sites, access, and private sector business activity which is influenced by an array of factors that act to provide opportunities that satisfy leisure-based travel demands. Measures of recreational site density that account for both physical/geographic size and population, or social capacity are used as key explanatory variables in models of tourism dependence. Results suggest that tourism dependence in Wisconsin involves both recreation sites and natural amenities. Assessing tourism production without incorporation of these non-priced latent inputs provides an incomplete characterization of the tourism phenomenon.

Gunn, C. A. 1997. Tourism Function: Supply and Attractions: First Power. In Vacationscape: Developing Tourist Areas.Washington, Taylor & Francis: 31-57

These two chapters look at the tourism supply function. Supply is seen as being modeled by five independent components: attractions, transportation, services, information and promotion. Most important component is the tourism attraction. This author, however, takes a broad view of what is an "attraction" and what makes an "attraction" attractive. Six factors are considered: easy comprehensibility; basis in the surrounding environment; type of owner control (commercial, government or non-profit); magnetism of the attraction; capacity to satisfy; and result of creation. Three primary actors develop the supply of tourism products: the commercial sector; non-profit organizations; and government.

Gunn, C. A. 1997. Destination Development. In Vacationscape: Developing Tourist Areas.Washington, Taylor & Francis: 58-68

This chapter describes the concept of the destination zone. The main conclusion that the author draws is that the site development must always be seen in a larger context. The development of individual sites is connected to and dependent on many others and even across larger geographical areas. There are four components of a destination zone: attraction complexes, service community, transportation and access, and linkage corridors. When the concept of the destination zone is applied to the urban-to-remote scale four subzones emerge: urban subzone; suburban subzone; rural subzone; and remote subzone. In urban and suburban areas the attractions complexes are based on service businesses while in the rural and remote subzones attraction complexes based on natural-resources dominate.

Cooper, C., J. E. Fletcher, D. Gilbert and S. Wanhill. 1993. Patterns and Characteristics of the Supply of Tourism. In Tourism Principles and Practice.London, Pitman Publishing: 80-93

This book chapter introduces the characteristics of tourism supply and outlines the key issues involved. "Destinations" are seen as the defining tourism geographic unit. It is at the destination where all aspects of tourism come together - demand, transportation, supply and marketing. Tourist destinations have four key common features: they are cultural appraisals (dependent on the taste of the visitor); they are inseparable (dependent on the particular location and specific qualities of the destination); they are not used only by tourists (destinations may be used by locals or by other industries - fishing, forestry, agriculture, etc.); and the elements of the destination must be complementary (e.g. accommodation with attractions with transport networks). The components of the destination include: attractions (both human-made and natural features); amenities; access; and ancillary services (promotion, industry organization). A critical factor to the success of any tourism destination is its carrying capacity, which is dependent not only the characteristics of the destination but the management choices that are made.

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