Economic Impact Analysis - Specific Issues - Employment, Seasonality and Distribution
Methodology  -  Lake State Examples - Other Examples         
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Johnson, P. and B. Thomas. 1990. "Measuring the Local Employment Impact of a Tourist Attraction: An Empirical Study." Regional Studies 24(5): 395-403.

This paper has provided a conceptual framework for measuring the net employment impact of a tourist attraction using the Beamish Museum in North East of England as a case study. The case study reveals that in the case of the Beamish Museum the diversion of demand results in no net gain in employment outside of the direct employment in the Museum.

Lake States Examples:

Marcouiller, D. W., E. Goodman, S. Fox and D. Scheler. 2004. Travel and Tourism Employment in Wisconsin: Moving Beyond Aggregate Estimates and Conventional Wisdom. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Extension, Department of Urban & Regional Planning University of Wisconsin-Madison.

This study looks at the employment and wages characteristics of the travel and tourism industry in the State of Wisconsin in 2001-02. Focus groups are also used to contextualize the results of the quantitative analysis and provide input on such aspects as the business climate, seasonality, labor markets and the impact of public policy. Statewide the travel and tourism industry generated almost 320,000 total jobs or 12% of all wage and salary jobs. The average annual wage and salary income generated by travel and tourism industry jobs was almost $13,000 compared to $27,000 for "all industries". Roughly three-quarters of the wages and salary are generated in 25 urban and suburban communities, while as a percentage of all economic activity, travel and tourism make up a substantially larger portion (25-30%) of income and jobs for rural Wisconsin. Tourism firm owners and operators were optimistic about the quality of career ladder opportunities in the industry and emphasizes the quality-of-life associated with owning a small business and living in high amenity areas.

Marcouiller, D. W. 1996. The Seasonality of Labor Use in Rural Tourism Regions. June 1-3, 1995. St. Louis: Paper presented at the 1995 Mid-continent Regional Science Association.

This study used monthly 1993 ES-202 data on employment and a standard deviation approach to develop an index of annual seasonality in labor use among four Wisconsin regions. In addition to statewide data, these regions included three counties in Northern Wisconsin, Door County and the Wisconsin Dells. Labor use of characteristic tourism types are compared and contrasted with respect to 1 digit SIC categories.

Other Examples:

Dillon, T. 2000. Employment and Wages: The Travel Industry in Montana. Technical Report 2000-1. Missoula, University Travel Research Program, The University of Montana. Web Link.

This report looks at the distribution of Montana tourism jobs by sector major sector, the seasonality of tourism jobs in certain sectors, the part-time nature of tourism jobs and the average tourism wage of employees.

Wilton, D. and T. Wirjanto. 1998. An Analysis of the Seasonal Variation in the National Tourism Indicators. Waterloo, ON: Canadian Tourism Commission, Department of Economics, University of Waterloo. Web link.

This paper looks at the seasonality of demand, supply and employment in the tourism industry in Canada. A sharp and pronounced seasonal pattern is found in Canadian tourism expenditures, with seasonality explaining 75% of the variation in tourism expenditures. On the other hand their is less seasonality in tourism supply with seasonal fluctuations explaining only 32% of the statistical variation. There is even less seasonality in the tourism employment data. The report recommends the simple statistic of peak to trough ratios for monitoring the seasonality of tourism over the long term.

Choy, D. J. L. 1995. "The Quality of Tourism Employment." Tourism Management 16(2):129-137.

This paper examines the common criticism of the tourism industry that it generates service jobs which are low paying and demeaning. This paper analyses the quality of tourism employment using Hawaii as a case example. The analysis reveals that the major source of service occupations is food and beverage operations, which, in the majority of establishments, have residents as customers and as such is not unique to tourism. Wages varied substantially; however, the level of job satisfaction in tourism jobs was very high. Consequently, the quality of tourism employment is much better than that usually perceived by those outside the industry. In the long-run, tourism can be used as a catalyst to increase the number of career advancement opportunities and level of wages for residents working in the industry.

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