Destination Tourism
Lake State Examples - Other Examples         
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Lake States Examples:

Chen, R. J., P. Bloomfield and J. S. Fu. 2003. "An Evaluation of Alternative Forecasting Methods to Recreation Visitation." Journal of Leisure Research 35(4):441-454.

This study examines the advantages and disadvantages of basic, intermediate and advanced methods for visitor use forecasting were seasonality and limited data are characteristics of the estimation problem. The monthly use rates at the Milwaukee County Zoo are used to illustrate the seasonal time series techniques. Forecasting methods evaluated include: two naive techniques, a single moving average (SMA) with the classical decomposition procedure, single exponential smoothing (SES), double exponential smoothing (DES, Winter's, and the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA). SARIMA and SMA are found to the most appropriate methods in this case study. A useful comparative table is included listing the advantages and disadvantages of each method for predicting seasonal visitor patterns depending on the quality and characteristics of the data available for analysis.

Stynes, D. 2002. Economic Impacts of the Grand Rapids Art Museum on the Local Economy; The Leaded Glass of Frank Lloyd Wright Exhibit. East Lansing, MI: Department of Park, Recreation & Tourism Resources, Michigan State University. Web Link.

The study estimates visitor spending and economic impacts on the Grand Rapids area economy of the Leaded Glass of Frank Lloyd Wright Exhibit which ran in the Grand Rapids Art Museum. The exhibit attracted 13,800 visitors - 45% were local residents, 35% were day trippers from outside of the county and 16% were overnight visitors. Half the overnight visitors stayed in local hotels or B&Bs. Visitor spending (all types) yielded approximately $581,000 in personal income and 32 jobs in direct and secondary impacts.

Ford, J. and D. W. Marcouiller. 1998. The Wisconsin Maritime Museum in Manitowoc. Extension Reports Series 98.2. Madison, WI: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Wisconsin-Madison Extension.

This study uses input-output analysis to quantify current direct, indirect and induced economic impact of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum in Manitowoc County. Results suggest that the Museum is responsible for generating almost $1 million in regional income and 53 jobs. With a museum expansion and an application of average expenditure patterns, the combined county wide impact may increase as much as $500,000 and by 23 jobs. Cost-benefit project analysis should be used, however, to weight these anticipated positive benefits with inherent underlying political and social implications and fully address the impact of museum expansion.

Deller, S. C., A. Lake and J. Sroka. 1996. The St. Croix Casino: A Comprehensive Study of Its Socioeconomic Impacts. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study analyzed the costs and benefits of the St. Croix Casino, particularly its socioeconomic impact on the Village of Turtle Lake, the St. Croix Chippewa reservation, and Barron and Polk counties. The study used input-output models to conduct the analysis. The report also examined a variety of issues in addition to employment and income, namely, traffic, housing, public services, local revenues, crime, other local businesses, and general quality of life.

Norman, W. C., S. Hamilton and D. W. Marcouiller. 1995. A Profile of Visitors at the EAA Air Adventure Museum. Madison, WI: Tourism Research and Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study undertook an examination of the Experimental Aircraft Association Museum in Oshkosh, WI. Personal interviews were conducted of visitors. The research resulted in a visitor profile of EAA visitors, trip characteristics of visitors, trip motives and activities, and economic impact on Winnebago County. Using input-output analysis, this study found that $6.6 million in the local economy was attributable from museum visitors and over 202 jobs were attributable from visitor spending.

Marcouiller, D. W. 1994. Economic Impacts of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum: A Study of Current and Projected Effects. Madison, WI: Tourism Research and Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study estimated the economic impact of a proposed museum expansion on the Manitowoc County area by translating visitor expenditures estimates resulting from museum expansion into regional economic impact using an input-output framework. Average daily expenditures of museum visitors from a recent study of the EAA Museum in Oshkosh were applied to the current and projected annual attendance of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum in Manitowoc. Results indicate that current visitors spend approximately $1.4 million annually. The potential exists, with expansion, to increase this by $3.8 million annually. When applied to an input-output model of Manitowoc County, these expenditures translate into economic impact measured by income generated and jobs created.

Murray, J. 1993. The Economic Benefits of American Indian Gaming Facilities in Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Extension.

American Indian gaming in Wisconsin, according to this report, has had a large economic impact on employment and income. A total of 32,000 jobs, 10,000 of which were directly supported by gaming, were created. In addition, net profits to American Indian communities totaled $135 million in 1992. This study used an input-output model to analyze information collected from the participating tribes in the state.

Gray, J. and S. Hamilton. 1989. A Visitor Profile of the 1988 Greater Milwaukee Open. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

At the 1988 Greater Milwaukee Open Golf Tournament, interviews were conducted of about one-third of the spectators for a visitor profile and expenditure patterns. It was estimated that patrons spent about $1.5 million in the Milwaukee area which represented the four-day fiscal impact.

Huberty, W. and R. Cooper. 1987. Feasibility Study for a Proposed Hostel and Bicycle Museum In Elroy, Wisconsin. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This feasibility study for a proposed hostel and bicycle museum in Elroy, Wisconsin used visitor profile information on the Elroy-Sparta bike trail. The study found that an estimated 53,600 people would use the trail in 1987. By studying costs and revenues, the study found that a hostel would be feasible. This study does not measure impacts directly.

Joachim, K. and K. Peterson. 1986. A Market Analysis and Economic Impact Study for a Proposed Marine Museum At Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

The first part of the study was a marketing analysis, conducted to determine if the site was an appropriate one, if enough visitors would use the museum and when they would come. The second part of the study assessed the economic impact of the project. The study found that the museum's site was reasonable and would attract upwards of 32,000 visitors per year. Total direct and indirect revenues were estimated at about $675,000 and the total employment impact was estimated to be about 18 full time jobs.

Rosen, M. I., W. A. Strang and J. Kramer. 1985. The University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Local and State Economies: A Second Look. Monograph No. 20. Madison, Graduate School of Business, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

In an earlier 1971 study, the authors were surprised at the extent of the economic impact of UW-Madison on Dane County's economy. This study found that UW-Madison's impact continued to be large. The total impact, direct and indirect, on Dane County was estimated at $1.41 billion per year. In addition, over 40,000 jobs in Dane County were due to UW-Madison. The study looked at UW-Madison spending, employee spending, student spending and visitor spending. Two surprises came out of this study, the role of University Hospital and Clinics and the size of the visitor impact.

Thompson, W., R. Gazel and D. Rickman. 1985. The Economic Impact of Native American Gaming In Wisconsin. Madison, WI: The Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Inc.

This study examined the economic impact of 17 reservation casinos in Wisconsin. An input-output analysis was conducted using RIMS II Regional Multipliers. The study identified both the social costs and benefits of gaming. The study found that the state gains $326.72 million in net revenue, though social costs related to compulsive gambling reduce this figure to $166.23 million. When higher social costs estimates were used, the impact was negative. The study concluded that Native American casino gaming in Wisconsin should be viewed as a transfer program and should be assessed in the future in terms of how this type of transfer program can be improved.

Gilby, E. 1980. Milwaukee County Zoo. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study focused on the non-local visitors to the Milwaukee Zoo. A survey was conducted of zoo visitors to determine the impact of non-local visitors to the economy. Expenditure patterns were developed and employment estimates were derived. Direct expenditures were estimated to total $12 million and support 636 jobs. Indirect employment totaled an additional 1,151 jobs. Indirect spending was estimated at $21 million. Fiscal impact (both benefits and costs) were estimated and included estimates of property tax, sales tax, personal income tax, corporate income tax and motor fuel tax.

Gray, J., B. Wangard and W. Winfield. 1979. A Visitor Study - 1978, Henry Vilas Park Zoo, Madison, Wisconsin. Madison, WI: Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

The Henry Vilas Park Zoo was studied to learn more about the visitors, their origin, their motive for visiting, their frequency of visiting, the amount of money they spent, and improvements they would like to see. Over 1,000 personal interviews were conducted in July and August of 1978. Among other findings, the study estimated that average expenditures totaled $16.49 per outing per party and the impact on the local economy totaled about $1.1 million during those two months.

Other Examples:

Finn, A. and T. Erdem. 1995. "The Economic Impact of a Mega-Multi-Mall." Tourism Management 16(5):367-373.

This paper debunks the economic impact claims of the West Edmonton Mall (WEM), a mega-multi-mall, and provides more methodologically sound estimates of the true economic impact. Biases in the WEM estimates were introduced through the substitution of judgment sampling for true probability sampling, the failure to control for differential time spent and intercept response rates, and the reporting of total rather than just incremental effects. This study adjusts the initial WEM methodology to account for this problems and instead of an estimate of 9 million visitors and an economic impact of $700 million and 40,000 jobs in 1986, the authors suggests the realistic results are 5 million visitors that had an economic impact of $176 million in household income and 13,800 jobs.

Parlett, G., J. E. Fletcher and C. Cooper. 1995. "The Impact of Tourism on the Old Town of Edinburgh." Tourism Management 16(5):355-360.

This study develops a mini input-output model to assess the economic impact of tourism on the Old Town of Edinburgh, Scotland. The simplified input-output model included only six economic sectors. While the economic impact of visitors in Old Town was significant, the authors not the economic impact of Old Town cannot be seen simply within Old Town itself, but as a tourist attraction in its own right it has significant impact on the broader region.

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