Non-Market Goods - Contingent Valuation
Methodology  -  Lake State Examples - Other Examples         
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Lindberg, K. and R. L. Johnson. 1997. "The Economic Values of Tourism's Social Impacts." Annals of Tourism Research 24(1):90-116.

This article presents the use of contingent valuation to estimate the economic cost of three social impacts of tourism on the Oregon Coast: traffic congestion, noise and minor crime, and provision of low-income housing. A detailed description of the contingent valuation method is provided along with a discussion of its challenges, sources of errors and major pitfalls. In particular, the challenge of discriminating between the valuation of the commodity and the valuation of the policy presented in the contingent valuation scenario is highlight. The authors present logit models of the contingent valuation scenarios and analyze the various factors that influenced a respondents willingness-to-pay. Factors analyzed included the importance of the issue, income level and length of residency in the community.

Lake States Examples:

Chambers, C. M. and J. C. Whitehead. 2003. "A Contingent Valuation Estimate of the Benefits of Wolves in Minnesota." Environment and Resources Economics 26(249-267).

This paper estimates the willingness to pay for two wolf management plans in Minnesota using the contingent valuation method. The willingness to pay for wolf protection is composed of use and non-use values. Where respondents answered "don't know" to the dichotomous choice valuation question, a multinomial logit model is used to differentiate between "don't know" and "no" responses. Both management plans are found to be economically efficient with benefits greater than costs.

Marcouiller, D. W., A. Anderson and W. C. Norman. 1996. Trout Angling in Southwestern Wisconsin and Implications for Regional Development. Madison, WI: The Center for Community Economic Development, Univeristy of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study assessed trout anglers on two Southwestern Wisconsin streams for their perceptions about current resource attributes and their resource use behavior. A two stage survey effort was undertaken during the 1995 angling season including angler identification and subsequent survey. In addition to perceptive and behavioral information, the effort used expenditure data with an input-output model (constructed using MicroIMPLAN) to estimate regional economic impacts. The study also collected data on angler willingness-to-pay for non-market resource attributes affected through fisheries management. Results from this portion of the study were based on graphical analysis of a series of dichotomous choice contingent valuation questions.

Marcouiller, D. W., W. C. Norman, A. Anderson and A. Stoecker. 1996. Valuing Management Attributes of a Trout Fishery Resource: Differences Between Local and Non-Local Anglers. May 12-23. University Park: Paper presented at the 6th International Symposium on Society and Natural Resources.

This study analyzed the perception of fishery resource attributes by anglers in Southwestern Wisconsin during the 1995 angling season. Logistic regression and a dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey were used to develop non-market resource valuation measures. Local anglers were shown to be significantly different from non-local anglers in many respects. Of particular interest were differences in the economic values associated with resource attributes that are manipulated through fisheries management activities.

Boyle, K. J. and R. C. Bishop. 1984. Lower Wisconsin River Recreation: Economic Impacts and Scenic Values. No 216. Madison, WI: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

This study of summer canoeists and boaters along the Lower Wisconsin River found that there are substantial economic impacts and benefits from this type of recreation. Interviews were conducted of river users. Through this method, it was found that summer use by boaters added $860,000 per year to business activity and $439,000 to household incomes. In addition, the study used a contingent valuation method to estimate the value of the scenic aspects of the river. The study recommended several management policies that could help to maintain the scenic beauty of the area, including stricter zoning ordinances and purchases of scenic easements.

Other Examples:

Lee, C.-K. and S.-Y. Han. 2002. "Estimating the Use and Preservation Values of National Parks' Tourism Resources Using a Contingent Valuation Method." Tourism Management 23:531-540.

The study uses the contingent valuation method, choosing it over the travel cost method for a number of reasons, to estimate the use and preservation (or non-use) values of natural and / or cultural resources in five Korean national parks. The use values ranged from $14.3 to $4.8 and the preservation values $13.5 to $10.6. The study found the further away the park was to the user the higher the use value while the closer the park was to the user the higher the preservation value. The study concludes that there is ample opportunity to increase the visitor fees at the Parks that currently are only $0.83.

Lee, C.-K. 1997. "Valuation of Nature-Based Tourism Resources Using Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation Method." Tourism Management 18(8):587-591.

The purpose of this paper is to measure the potential revenue from nature-based tourism resources in the environmentally sensitive area of Mt. Minju, South Korea. A dichotomous choice valuation method was employed to estimate mean willingness-to-pay, contingent on a hypothetical market scenario. The results who that the economic value of nature-based tourism resources was estimated at $7 per visitor. In addition to the value of natural resources, nature-based tourism also provides the locally owned small tourist businesses with lower leakages than the externally owned large-scale ones.

Bostedt, G. and L. Mattson. 1995. "The Value of Forests for Tourism in Sweden." Annals of Tourism Research 22(3):671-680.

This paper uses the Contingent Valuation Method and regression analysis of forest characteristics to investigate the economic value of different forest types for tourism. It was shown that a considerable portion of the value to tourists is attributable to forest characteristics. The results also suggest that this value of the forests to tourism can be increased my modifying forest management practices. There would be a positive effect on the value in both regions studied if the clearcuts were smaller, even if there were more of them, and if the proportion of broad leafed trees in forest stands was increased.

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