Canoeing, Kayaking and Whitewater Rafting
Lake State Examples - Other Examples         
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Lake States Examples:

Leatherman, J. C. 1995. At Work in The Kickapoo Valley: Tourism. Madison, WI: The Center for Community Economic Development, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This fact sheet looks at the impact of tourism on the economy of the region. Using an input-output model, the impact of canoeists on the economy was looked at specifically. From a survey that was conducted in 1993, canoeists spent an estimated $655,607 in the Valley. The total direct and indirect impact of this expenditure accounts for about $700,000 in sales, about $240,000 in wages and about $463,000 in all types of income. In addition, about 18 jobs are created. This analysis shows the significance of one recreational activity to the Valley's economy and why tourism as a development strategy can yield beneficial results.

Norman, W. C., K. Larkin and S. Hamilton. 1994. A Profile of Canoers on the Kickapoo River Summer 1993. Madison, WI: Tourism Research and Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

The Kickapoo River has been popular to canoers, but to this date little was known about who the canoers were, why they canoed, and how much they spent on their trips. This study aimed to answer some of these questions so that better promotion, planning and development of tourism could occur. The study produced a visitor profile of canoers, a description of a canoeing trip, and an analysis of canoeing expenditures and its related economic impact. Canoer expenditures totaled over $700,000 in total sales and the creation of over 18 jobs in the area.

Boyle, K. J. and R. C. Bishop. 1984. Lower Wisconsin River Recreation: Economic Impacts and Scenic Values. No 216. Madison, WI: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

This study of summer canoeists and boaters along the Lower Wisconsin River found that there are substantial economic impacts and benefits from this type of recreation. Interviews were conducted of river users. Through this method, it was found that summer use by boaters added $860,000 per year to business activity and $439,000 to household incomes. In addition, the study used a contingent valuation method to estimate the value of the scenic aspects of the river. The study recommended several management policies that could help to maintain the scenic beauty of the area, including stricter zoning ordinances and purchases of scenic easements.

Sumathi, N. R., W. Fischer and T. Kane. 1983. An Economic Profile of Kayak/ Canoe Users. Superior, WI: The Center for Community Economic Development, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

Kayak/Canoe users were surveyed to obtain information about them, their activities, their economic impact on the local economy, and their interest in supporting the proposed "Lake Superior Water Trail." Respondents generally were male and close to 40 years old. Over half were employed in professional/technical occupations and average household income exceeded $45,000 per year. In the report, activities were broken into silent and non-silent activities, with most respondents participating in both types of activities. The average party spent close to $350 per trip.

Blank, U. and S. Stipe. 1971. Economic Impact of the Crow Wing Canoe Trail, Wadena County, Minn. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Recreation Resources Center, University of Wisconsin-Extension.

This study measured the economic impact of developing a canoe trail along two rivers in Minnesota. Surveys of outfitters and users was used to estimate economic and employment impacts. Although the impact was small, the study was optimistic in seeing canoeing as a core to a future of recreational development.

Other Examples:

Johnson, R. L. 1993. "Tourism Impact Estimation." Annals of Tourism Research 20:279-288.

This paper tackles the challenge of estimating regional economic impacts by whitewater rafting on the Upper Klamath River in Oregon. In particular, the study looks to provide accurate estimates by 1) accounting for expenditures only in the specified region, 2) determining the percentage of multiple destination trips to the tourism resource, and 3) including only those local expenditures that represent import substitution. Using the IMPLAN input-output model output, income and employment impacts are estimated. A model that accounted for both import substitution by local users and non-local users who were on a multiple destination trip and would likely have recreated in the region anyway provided lower impact estimates than a model that disregarded both local substitution and the affect of multiple destination trips.

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